Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective treatment for both distal and proximal ureteral calculi. Significant advancements in scope design, intracorporeal lithotrites, stone retrieval devices, and assistive devices have greatly increased the safety of ureteroscopy. In this chapter we will review the history of ureteroscopy and indications for the procedure. We will also discuss the ideal use of flexible, semirigid, and rigid ureteroscopes. Appropriate applications of assistive devices, ureteral access sheaths, and stone retrieval devices will be reviewed. We will also assess applicability of different intracorporeal lithotrites. Finally, complications of ureteroscopy will be examined, as well as their appropriate treatment. Urologists with appropriate knowledge of and skill sets for ureteroscopy should consider this treatment modality a realistic first-line therapy for ureteral stone disease.
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