Urinary bladder and urachus

Myra L. Wilkerson, Liang Cheng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Biopsies from the urinary bladder are challenging and it may be difficult to differentiate normal from benign or reactive processes, and even from low-grade neoplastic processes. This chapter addresses these common problems by profiling immunohistochemical stains that change their patterns of expression from that of normal urothelium, including both the cellular layers and cellular compartments in which markers are expressed. Morphologic patterns of urothelial carcinoma that cause diagnostic dilemmas are also included, such as glandular lesions of both primary and metastatic origin, and lesions with variant histologic growth patterns. Staining patterns of urachal neoplasms and their differential diagnoses are addressed. Nephrogenic adenomas of the urothelial tract and their mimics are covered. Although uncommon, the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions is also addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Practical Immunohistochemistry: Frequently Asked Questions
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9781493915781, 9781493915774
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Cystitis glandularis
  • Nephrogenic adenoma
  • Papillary urothelial neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (PUNLMP)
  • Urachal adenocarcinoma
  • Urothelial adenocarcinoma
  • Urothelial carcinoma
  • Urthelial papilloma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Wilkerson, M. L., & Cheng, L. (2015). Urinary bladder and urachus. In Handbook of Practical Immunohistochemistry: Frequently Asked Questions (pp. 421-437). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1578-1_22