Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD

The PHQ Primary Care Study

Robert L. Spitzer, Kurt Kroenke, Janet B W Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4675 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was developed as a screening instrument but its administration time has limited its clinical usefulness. Objective. To determine if the self- administered PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) has validity and utility for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD. Design. Criterion standard study undertaken between May 1997 and November 1998. Setting. Eight primary care clinics in the United States. Participants. Of a total of 3000 adult patients (selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 62 primary care physicians (21 general internal medicine, 41 family practice), 585 patients had an interview with a mental health professional within 48 hours of completing the PHQ. Main Outcome Measures. Patient Health Questionnaire diagnoses compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; health care use; and treatment/referral decisions. Results. A total of 825 (28%) of the 3000 individuals and 170 (29%) of the 585 had a PHQ diagnosis. There was good agreement between PHQ diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any 1 or more PHQ disorder, κ = 0.65; overall accuracy, 85%; sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 90%), similar to the original PRIME-MD. Patients with PHQ diagnoses had more functional impairment, disability days, and health care use than did patients without PHQ diagnoses (for all group main effects, P<.001). The average time required of the physician to review the PHQ was far less than to administer the original PRIME-MD (<3 minutes for 85% vs 16% of the cases). Although 80% of the physicians reported that routine use of the PHQ would be useful, new management actions were initiated or planned for only 117 (32%) of the 363 patients with I or more PHQ diagnoses not previously recognized. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD, and is more efficient to use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1737-1744
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Medical Association
Volume282
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 10 1999

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Mental Disorders
Self Report
Primary Health Care
Health
Mental Health
Surveys and Questionnaires
Delivery of Health Care
Physicians
Selection Bias
Family Practice
Mentally Ill Persons
Primary Care Physicians
Internal Medicine
Referral and Consultation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD : The PHQ Primary Care Study. / Spitzer, Robert L.; Kroenke, Kurt; Williams, Janet B W.

In: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 18, 10.11.1999, p. 1737-1744.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Context. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was developed as a screening instrument but its administration time has limited its clinical usefulness. Objective. To determine if the self- administered PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) has validity and utility for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD. Design. Criterion standard study undertaken between May 1997 and November 1998. Setting. Eight primary care clinics in the United States. Participants. Of a total of 3000 adult patients (selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 62 primary care physicians (21 general internal medicine, 41 family practice), 585 patients had an interview with a mental health professional within 48 hours of completing the PHQ. Main Outcome Measures. Patient Health Questionnaire diagnoses compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; health care use; and treatment/referral decisions. Results. A total of 825 (28{\%}) of the 3000 individuals and 170 (29{\%}) of the 585 had a PHQ diagnosis. There was good agreement between PHQ diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any 1 or more PHQ disorder, κ = 0.65; overall accuracy, 85{\%}; sensitivity, 75{\%}; specificity, 90{\%}), similar to the original PRIME-MD. Patients with PHQ diagnoses had more functional impairment, disability days, and health care use than did patients without PHQ diagnoses (for all group main effects, P<.001). The average time required of the physician to review the PHQ was far less than to administer the original PRIME-MD (<3 minutes for 85{\%} vs 16{\%} of the cases). Although 80{\%} of the physicians reported that routine use of the PHQ would be useful, new management actions were initiated or planned for only 117 (32{\%}) of the 363 patients with I or more PHQ diagnoses not previously recognized. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD, and is more efficient to use.",
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