Validation of a Short Adherence Questionnaire for Children Living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya

Rachel Christine Vreeman, Michael Lawrence Scanlon, Wanzhu Tu, James Slaven, Samuel Ayaya, Winstone Nyandiko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Background: There are few validated tools to measure adherence for children living with HIV. We identified questionnaire items for caregivers of Kenyan children aged <15 years living with HIV. Methods: Caregiver–child dyads were followed for 6 months. At monthly visits, the child’s HIV provider administered a 10-item questionnaire to the caregiver. Children were given electronic dose monitors (Medication Event Monitoring Systems [MEMS]). Correlation between questionnaire items and dichotomized MEMS adherence (≥90% doses taken versus <90%) was investigated using logistic regression models. Results: In 95 caregiver–child dyads, mean age of children (40% female) was 8.3 years. Items associated with higher odds of MEMS adherence in multivariable analysis included the father giving the child medication, being enrolled in a nutrition program, and the caregiver reporting no difficulties giving the child medication. Conclusion: Providers typically ask about missed doses, but asking about caregiver responsibilities and difficulties in giving the child medication may better detect suboptimal adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
StatePublished - Dec 24 2018


  • HIV-infected children
  • Kenya
  • adherence to treatment
  • validation testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases

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