Validation of the Bio-Response Solutions Human-28 Low-Temperature Alkaline Hydrolysis System

Gerald A. Denys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction: High temperature alkaline hydrolysis (AH) is recognized as an alternative method for sterilization and disposition of animal carcasses and human remains. The aim of this study is to validate the low temperature (LT) AH process specific to its use in the Bio-Response Solutions, Inc. Human-28 LT System. Methods: A 313-lb pig was processed using the manufacturers recommended cycle parameters. Stainless steel sample vials containing spore suspensions of Geobacillus stearothermophilus were implanted into the pig’s deep tissue to validate the efficacy of the process conditions. Spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis were suspended in the vessel headspace to validate sterilization. The spore challenge was greater than the recommended 106 log used to determine sterilization. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis was used to validate the destruction of prion-sized particles in processed effluent. Results: Complete inactivation of spores and digestion of animal tissue were achieved after processing in the Bio-Response Solutions Human-28 LT Alkaline Hydrolysis System. Complete inactivation of spores was achieved when exposed to heat in the animal carcass and headspace. No peptide fragments larger than 2500 Da were observed in the treatment effluent. Discussion: The Bio-Response Solutions, Inc. Human-28 LT Alkaline Hydrolysis System was as effective as high-temperature alkaline hydrolysis for use on animal and human tissue. Conclusion: LT AH for tissue and bodies exceeded the sterility assurance level III of the US State and Territorial Association on Alternative Treatment Technologies and sterility requirements for animal biosafety level–3 and –4 facilities. LT AH process validated destruction of prion-sized particles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-188
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Biosafety
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Geobacillus stearothermophilus
  • alkaline hydrolysis
  • low temperature
  • prions
  • sterilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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