Variation in a Left Ventricle-Specific Hand1 Enhancer Impairs GATA Transcription Factor Binding and Disrupts Conduction System Development and Function

Joshua W. Vincentz, Beth A. Firulli, Kevin P. Toolan, Dan E. Arking, Nona Sotoodehnia, Juyi Wan, Peng Sheng Chen, Corrie de Gier-de Vries, Vincent M. Christoffels, Michael Rubart-von der Lohe, Anthony Firulli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

RATIONALE: The ventricular conduction system (VCS) rapidly propagates electrical impulses through the working myocardium of the ventricles to coordinate chamber contraction. GWAS (Genome-wide association studies) have associated nucleotide polymorphisms, most are located within regulatory intergenic or intronic sequences, with variation in VCS function. Two highly correlated polymorphisms (r2>0.99) associated with VCS functional variation (rs13165478 and rs13185595) occur 5' to the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND1 (heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1). OBJECTIVE: Here, we test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms influence HAND1 transcription thereby influencing VCS development and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed transgenic mouse models to identify an enhancer that is sufficient for left ventricle (LV) cis-regulatory activity. Two evolutionarily conserved GATA transcription factor cis-binding elements within this enhancer are bound by GATA4 and are necessary for cis-regulatory activity, as shown by in vitro DNA binding assays. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer dramatically reduces Hand1 expression solely within the LV but does not phenocopy previously published mouse models of cardiac Hand1 loss-of-function. Electrophysiological and morphological analyses reveals that mice homozygous for this deleted enhancer display a morphologically abnormal VCS and a conduction system phenotype consistent with right bundle branch block. Using 1000 Genomes Project data, we identify 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the Hand1 LV enhancer, that compose a haplotype with rs13165478 and rs13185595. One of these SNPs, rs10054375, overlaps with a critical GATA cis-regulatory element within the Hand1 LV enhancer. This SNP, when tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disrupts GATA4 DNA-binding. Modeling 2 of these SNPs in mice causes diminished Hand1 expression and mice present with abnormal VCS function. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings reveal that SNP rs10054375, which is located within a necessary and sufficient LV-specific Hand1 enhancer, exhibits reduces GATA DNA-binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and this enhancer in total, is required for VCS development and function in mice and perhaps humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-589
Number of pages15
JournalCirculation research
Volume125
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 30 2019

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GATA Transcription Factors
Heart Ventricles
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
DNA
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Bundle-Branch Block
Neural Crest
Genome-Wide Association Study
Haplotypes
Transgenic Mice
Myocardium
Nucleotides
Genome
Phenotype
Genes
Proteins

Keywords

  • haplotype
  • introns
  • myocardium
  • phenotype
  • transcription factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Variation in a Left Ventricle-Specific Hand1 Enhancer Impairs GATA Transcription Factor Binding and Disrupts Conduction System Development and Function. / Vincentz, Joshua W.; Firulli, Beth A.; Toolan, Kevin P.; Arking, Dan E.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Wan, Juyi; Chen, Peng Sheng; de Gier-de Vries, Corrie; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Firulli, Anthony.

In: Circulation research, Vol. 125, No. 6, 30.08.2019, p. 575-589.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vincentz, Joshua W. ; Firulli, Beth A. ; Toolan, Kevin P. ; Arking, Dan E. ; Sotoodehnia, Nona ; Wan, Juyi ; Chen, Peng Sheng ; de Gier-de Vries, Corrie ; Christoffels, Vincent M. ; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael ; Firulli, Anthony. / Variation in a Left Ventricle-Specific Hand1 Enhancer Impairs GATA Transcription Factor Binding and Disrupts Conduction System Development and Function. In: Circulation research. 2019 ; Vol. 125, No. 6. pp. 575-589.
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abstract = "RATIONALE: The ventricular conduction system (VCS) rapidly propagates electrical impulses through the working myocardium of the ventricles to coordinate chamber contraction. GWAS (Genome-wide association studies) have associated nucleotide polymorphisms, most are located within regulatory intergenic or intronic sequences, with variation in VCS function. Two highly correlated polymorphisms (r2>0.99) associated with VCS functional variation (rs13165478 and rs13185595) occur 5' to the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND1 (heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1). OBJECTIVE: Here, we test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms influence HAND1 transcription thereby influencing VCS development and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed transgenic mouse models to identify an enhancer that is sufficient for left ventricle (LV) cis-regulatory activity. Two evolutionarily conserved GATA transcription factor cis-binding elements within this enhancer are bound by GATA4 and are necessary for cis-regulatory activity, as shown by in vitro DNA binding assays. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer dramatically reduces Hand1 expression solely within the LV but does not phenocopy previously published mouse models of cardiac Hand1 loss-of-function. Electrophysiological and morphological analyses reveals that mice homozygous for this deleted enhancer display a morphologically abnormal VCS and a conduction system phenotype consistent with right bundle branch block. Using 1000 Genomes Project data, we identify 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the Hand1 LV enhancer, that compose a haplotype with rs13165478 and rs13185595. One of these SNPs, rs10054375, overlaps with a critical GATA cis-regulatory element within the Hand1 LV enhancer. This SNP, when tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disrupts GATA4 DNA-binding. Modeling 2 of these SNPs in mice causes diminished Hand1 expression and mice present with abnormal VCS function. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings reveal that SNP rs10054375, which is located within a necessary and sufficient LV-specific Hand1 enhancer, exhibits reduces GATA DNA-binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and this enhancer in total, is required for VCS development and function in mice and perhaps humans.",
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T1 - Variation in a Left Ventricle-Specific Hand1 Enhancer Impairs GATA Transcription Factor Binding and Disrupts Conduction System Development and Function

AU - Vincentz, Joshua W.

AU - Firulli, Beth A.

AU - Toolan, Kevin P.

AU - Arking, Dan E.

AU - Sotoodehnia, Nona

AU - Wan, Juyi

AU - Chen, Peng Sheng

AU - de Gier-de Vries, Corrie

AU - Christoffels, Vincent M.

AU - Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael

AU - Firulli, Anthony

PY - 2019/8/30

Y1 - 2019/8/30

N2 - RATIONALE: The ventricular conduction system (VCS) rapidly propagates electrical impulses through the working myocardium of the ventricles to coordinate chamber contraction. GWAS (Genome-wide association studies) have associated nucleotide polymorphisms, most are located within regulatory intergenic or intronic sequences, with variation in VCS function. Two highly correlated polymorphisms (r2>0.99) associated with VCS functional variation (rs13165478 and rs13185595) occur 5' to the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND1 (heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1). OBJECTIVE: Here, we test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms influence HAND1 transcription thereby influencing VCS development and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed transgenic mouse models to identify an enhancer that is sufficient for left ventricle (LV) cis-regulatory activity. Two evolutionarily conserved GATA transcription factor cis-binding elements within this enhancer are bound by GATA4 and are necessary for cis-regulatory activity, as shown by in vitro DNA binding assays. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer dramatically reduces Hand1 expression solely within the LV but does not phenocopy previously published mouse models of cardiac Hand1 loss-of-function. Electrophysiological and morphological analyses reveals that mice homozygous for this deleted enhancer display a morphologically abnormal VCS and a conduction system phenotype consistent with right bundle branch block. Using 1000 Genomes Project data, we identify 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the Hand1 LV enhancer, that compose a haplotype with rs13165478 and rs13185595. One of these SNPs, rs10054375, overlaps with a critical GATA cis-regulatory element within the Hand1 LV enhancer. This SNP, when tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disrupts GATA4 DNA-binding. Modeling 2 of these SNPs in mice causes diminished Hand1 expression and mice present with abnormal VCS function. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings reveal that SNP rs10054375, which is located within a necessary and sufficient LV-specific Hand1 enhancer, exhibits reduces GATA DNA-binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and this enhancer in total, is required for VCS development and function in mice and perhaps humans.

AB - RATIONALE: The ventricular conduction system (VCS) rapidly propagates electrical impulses through the working myocardium of the ventricles to coordinate chamber contraction. GWAS (Genome-wide association studies) have associated nucleotide polymorphisms, most are located within regulatory intergenic or intronic sequences, with variation in VCS function. Two highly correlated polymorphisms (r2>0.99) associated with VCS functional variation (rs13165478 and rs13185595) occur 5' to the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND1 (heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1). OBJECTIVE: Here, we test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms influence HAND1 transcription thereby influencing VCS development and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed transgenic mouse models to identify an enhancer that is sufficient for left ventricle (LV) cis-regulatory activity. Two evolutionarily conserved GATA transcription factor cis-binding elements within this enhancer are bound by GATA4 and are necessary for cis-regulatory activity, as shown by in vitro DNA binding assays. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer dramatically reduces Hand1 expression solely within the LV but does not phenocopy previously published mouse models of cardiac Hand1 loss-of-function. Electrophysiological and morphological analyses reveals that mice homozygous for this deleted enhancer display a morphologically abnormal VCS and a conduction system phenotype consistent with right bundle branch block. Using 1000 Genomes Project data, we identify 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the Hand1 LV enhancer, that compose a haplotype with rs13165478 and rs13185595. One of these SNPs, rs10054375, overlaps with a critical GATA cis-regulatory element within the Hand1 LV enhancer. This SNP, when tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disrupts GATA4 DNA-binding. Modeling 2 of these SNPs in mice causes diminished Hand1 expression and mice present with abnormal VCS function. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings reveal that SNP rs10054375, which is located within a necessary and sufficient LV-specific Hand1 enhancer, exhibits reduces GATA DNA-binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and this enhancer in total, is required for VCS development and function in mice and perhaps humans.

KW - haplotype

KW - introns

KW - myocardium

KW - phenotype

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