Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit

Robert L. Wilensky, Keith L. March, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, George Sandusky, Naomi Fineberg, David R. Hathaway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

134 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Several nonatherosclerotic animal models of restenosis exist and are used for the evaluation of the vascular response to angioplasty-induced injury. However, few studies have evaluated the response of an atherosclerotic vessel to angioplasty. The present study examined the radiographic, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric responses over time of atherosclerotic rabbit femoral arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Methods and Results: Rabbits (n=94) underwent arterial desiccation and were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 weeks, and then PTA was performed. Arteries were obtained before PTA and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after PTA. PTA caused radial stretching of the artery, medial compression, intramural hemorrhage, injury to normal arterial segments, and dissection within the intima and media. Thrombus filled and cellular accumulation repaired the dissection. Peak smooth muscle cell and macrophage DNA synthesis was noted at 3 to 5 days after angioplasty, generally at the dissection but also in normal sections of the artery. Adventitial injury and subsequent adventitial cellular proliferation and collagen production were observed. A rapid decrease in the radiographic minimal luminal diameter was noted at 3 days, resulting from vascular recoil or thrombus filling the dissection. At 7 to 14 days, only 24% to 33% of the luminal loss was accounted for by an increase in the intimai area, and 22% to 28% of the intima was neointima. Conclusions: Restenosis in an atherosclerotic artery results from a variable combination of intimai proliferation, vascular remodeling/wound contraction, and recoil of the normal section of the artery. The variability of an atherosclerotic artery to PTA injury results from variable dissection, thrombus formation, and cellular response to injury as well as variable scar contraction and elastic recoil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2995-3005
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation
Volume92
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 1995

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Vascular System Injuries
Angioplasty
Rabbits
Dissection
Arteries
Wounds and Injuries
Adventitia
Thrombosis
Blood Vessels
Neointima
Desiccation
Radial Artery
Femoral Artery
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Cicatrix
Collagen
Animal Models
Macrophages
Cell Proliferation
Hemorrhage

Keywords

  • Angioplasty
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Remodeling
  • Stenosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Wilensky, R. L., March, K. L., Gradus-Pizlo, I., Sandusky, G., Fineberg, N., & Hathaway, D. R. (1995). Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit. Circulation, 92(10), 2995-3005.

Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit. / Wilensky, Robert L.; March, Keith L.; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Sandusky, George; Fineberg, Naomi; Hathaway, David R.

In: Circulation, Vol. 92, No. 10, 15.11.1995, p. 2995-3005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wilensky, RL, March, KL, Gradus-Pizlo, I, Sandusky, G, Fineberg, N & Hathaway, DR 1995, 'Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit', Circulation, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 2995-3005.
Wilensky RL, March KL, Gradus-Pizlo I, Sandusky G, Fineberg N, Hathaway DR. Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit. Circulation. 1995 Nov 15;92(10):2995-3005.
Wilensky, Robert L. ; March, Keith L. ; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina ; Sandusky, George ; Fineberg, Naomi ; Hathaway, David R. / Vascular injury, repair, and restenosis afterpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the atherosclerotic rabbit. In: Circulation. 1995 ; Vol. 92, No. 10. pp. 2995-3005.
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abstract = "Background: Several nonatherosclerotic animal models of restenosis exist and are used for the evaluation of the vascular response to angioplasty-induced injury. However, few studies have evaluated the response of an atherosclerotic vessel to angioplasty. The present study examined the radiographic, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric responses over time of atherosclerotic rabbit femoral arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Methods and Results: Rabbits (n=94) underwent arterial desiccation and were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 weeks, and then PTA was performed. Arteries were obtained before PTA and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after PTA. PTA caused radial stretching of the artery, medial compression, intramural hemorrhage, injury to normal arterial segments, and dissection within the intima and media. Thrombus filled and cellular accumulation repaired the dissection. Peak smooth muscle cell and macrophage DNA synthesis was noted at 3 to 5 days after angioplasty, generally at the dissection but also in normal sections of the artery. Adventitial injury and subsequent adventitial cellular proliferation and collagen production were observed. A rapid decrease in the radiographic minimal luminal diameter was noted at 3 days, resulting from vascular recoil or thrombus filling the dissection. At 7 to 14 days, only 24{\%} to 33{\%} of the luminal loss was accounted for by an increase in the intimai area, and 22{\%} to 28{\%} of the intima was neointima. Conclusions: Restenosis in an atherosclerotic artery results from a variable combination of intimai proliferation, vascular remodeling/wound contraction, and recoil of the normal section of the artery. The variability of an atherosclerotic artery to PTA injury results from variable dissection, thrombus formation, and cellular response to injury as well as variable scar contraction and elastic recoil.",
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AU - March, Keith L.

AU - Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina

AU - Sandusky, George

AU - Fineberg, Naomi

AU - Hathaway, David R.

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N2 - Background: Several nonatherosclerotic animal models of restenosis exist and are used for the evaluation of the vascular response to angioplasty-induced injury. However, few studies have evaluated the response of an atherosclerotic vessel to angioplasty. The present study examined the radiographic, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric responses over time of atherosclerotic rabbit femoral arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Methods and Results: Rabbits (n=94) underwent arterial desiccation and were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 weeks, and then PTA was performed. Arteries were obtained before PTA and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after PTA. PTA caused radial stretching of the artery, medial compression, intramural hemorrhage, injury to normal arterial segments, and dissection within the intima and media. Thrombus filled and cellular accumulation repaired the dissection. Peak smooth muscle cell and macrophage DNA synthesis was noted at 3 to 5 days after angioplasty, generally at the dissection but also in normal sections of the artery. Adventitial injury and subsequent adventitial cellular proliferation and collagen production were observed. A rapid decrease in the radiographic minimal luminal diameter was noted at 3 days, resulting from vascular recoil or thrombus filling the dissection. At 7 to 14 days, only 24% to 33% of the luminal loss was accounted for by an increase in the intimai area, and 22% to 28% of the intima was neointima. Conclusions: Restenosis in an atherosclerotic artery results from a variable combination of intimai proliferation, vascular remodeling/wound contraction, and recoil of the normal section of the artery. The variability of an atherosclerotic artery to PTA injury results from variable dissection, thrombus formation, and cellular response to injury as well as variable scar contraction and elastic recoil.

AB - Background: Several nonatherosclerotic animal models of restenosis exist and are used for the evaluation of the vascular response to angioplasty-induced injury. However, few studies have evaluated the response of an atherosclerotic vessel to angioplasty. The present study examined the radiographic, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric responses over time of atherosclerotic rabbit femoral arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Methods and Results: Rabbits (n=94) underwent arterial desiccation and were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 weeks, and then PTA was performed. Arteries were obtained before PTA and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after PTA. PTA caused radial stretching of the artery, medial compression, intramural hemorrhage, injury to normal arterial segments, and dissection within the intima and media. Thrombus filled and cellular accumulation repaired the dissection. Peak smooth muscle cell and macrophage DNA synthesis was noted at 3 to 5 days after angioplasty, generally at the dissection but also in normal sections of the artery. Adventitial injury and subsequent adventitial cellular proliferation and collagen production were observed. A rapid decrease in the radiographic minimal luminal diameter was noted at 3 days, resulting from vascular recoil or thrombus filling the dissection. At 7 to 14 days, only 24% to 33% of the luminal loss was accounted for by an increase in the intimai area, and 22% to 28% of the intima was neointima. Conclusions: Restenosis in an atherosclerotic artery results from a variable combination of intimai proliferation, vascular remodeling/wound contraction, and recoil of the normal section of the artery. The variability of an atherosclerotic artery to PTA injury results from variable dissection, thrombus formation, and cellular response to injury as well as variable scar contraction and elastic recoil.

KW - Angioplasty

KW - Atherosclerosis

KW - Remodeling

KW - Stenosis

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