Vitamin D and Cardiometabolic Disease: From Observation to Intervention

Yiqing Song, Lu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Vitamin D deficiency has become a major public health problem worldwide due to its increasing prevalence and potential health risks. There is growing evidence from experimental studies to suggest that vitamin D may influence risk of cardiometabolic disease through multiple pathways, including inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines; regulation of the renin-angiotensin system; and favorable effects on lipids, blood pressure, insulin secretion and action, and thrombosis. Human observational data, primarily from cross-sectional studies, have shown that low dietary vitamin D intake or vitamin D levels are inversely related to various cardiometabolic risk factors. Prospective studies have suggested the relationship between low 25(OH)D and increased risk of cardiometabolic disease, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from small randomized trials and post-hoc analyses of large clinical trials for the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors, however, remains inconsistent. This article aims to summarize epidemiologic data on the relationship between vitamin D and major cardiometabolic disease and highlight the challenges in translating observational evidence to future intervention studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-63
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Nutrition Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)
  • Adiposity
  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiometabolic disease
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Hypertension
  • Insulin secretion and sensitivity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
  • Systemic inflammation
  • Type 2 diabet
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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