Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue: A 1994 update

S. C. Manolagas, X. P. Yu, G. Girasole, Teresita Bellido

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Monocytes/macrophages and activated (but not resting) lymphocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes express the VDR. This protein is indistinguishable from the classical 50-kDa VDR and is encoded by an mRNA with identical nucleotide sequence to that of the human intestinal VDR. Acting via the VDR, 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the production of a plethora of monocyte, lymphocyte, and bone marrow stromal cell products, including several interleukins and other cytokines, as well as various oncogenes and transcription factors. However, these hormonal effects vary depending on the signals used to activate blood mononuclear cells; moreover, each of the effects of the hormone can be either attenuated, abolished, or even reversed from negative to positive in the presence of phorbol esters. Lymphocytes also express a previously unrecognized 80-kDa cytosolic protein that shares immunologic cross-reactivity with the VDR. This protein is induced on activation and is downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas the VDR is upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast to the signal- dependent effects of the hormone on cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and VDR are independent of the activation signals. This apparent mechanistic distinction raises the possibility that the signal-independent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and the VDR might be due to direct interactions of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex with specific response elements (negative and positive VDRFs, respectively) on these two genes; as opposed to the signal- dependent effects that might be due to influences of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex on other transcription factors that are generated in response to the different activation stimuli. Consistent with the second part of this contention, we have recently found that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates the 50-kDa DNA binding subunit of the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κB and the 105-kDa precursor of this subunit; as well as other members of the rel- related family of proteins, including v-rel and its normal cellular homolog c-rel, in activated normal human lymphocytes. Besides its influence on immune cell products, 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent agent for the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into osteoclasts, an effect which accounts for the potent role of the hormone in bone resorption. The osteoclastogenic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are probably mediated through direct effects on hematopoietic precursors as well as indirectly through actions of the hormone on bone marrow stromal/osteoblastic cells that provide the essential factors for osteoclast development. Although these observations have unraveled a role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in immunoregulation, the teleologic significance of the immunomodulating properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 remains poorly understood. Yet, early attempts to exploit the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has therapeutic potentials for hematolymphopoietic diseases, such as leukemia, autoimmune disorders, transplantation, and psoriasis, have been met with modest to complete success (in the case of psoriasis). The emergence of synthetic new analogs with lesser hypercalcemic properties than 1,25(OH)2D3, and evidence suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with cyclosporin is a more effective immunosuppressive regime than either of these agents alone, promises new and exciting advances in this area of investigation in the near future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-143
Number of pages15
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Volume14
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Vitamin D
Lymphocytes
Hormones
Transcription Factors
Osteoclasts
Thymocytes
Proteins
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Psoriasis
Transcription Factor RelB
Monocytes
Hematinics
Cytokines
Interleukins
Response Elements
Phorbol Esters
Immunosuppressive Agents
Bone Resorption
Oncogenes
Cyclosporine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Manolagas, S. C., Yu, X. P., Girasole, G., & Bellido, T. (1994). Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue: A 1994 update. Seminars in Nephrology, 14(2), 129-143.

Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue : A 1994 update. / Manolagas, S. C.; Yu, X. P.; Girasole, G.; Bellido, Teresita.

In: Seminars in Nephrology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1994, p. 129-143.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Manolagas, SC, Yu, XP, Girasole, G & Bellido, T 1994, 'Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue: A 1994 update', Seminars in Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 129-143.
Manolagas, S. C. ; Yu, X. P. ; Girasole, G. ; Bellido, Teresita. / Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue : A 1994 update. In: Seminars in Nephrology. 1994 ; Vol. 14, No. 2. pp. 129-143.
@article{5560b680d01f45d9b268ce6fed419c52,
title = "Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue: A 1994 update",
abstract = "Monocytes/macrophages and activated (but not resting) lymphocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes express the VDR. This protein is indistinguishable from the classical 50-kDa VDR and is encoded by an mRNA with identical nucleotide sequence to that of the human intestinal VDR. Acting via the VDR, 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the production of a plethora of monocyte, lymphocyte, and bone marrow stromal cell products, including several interleukins and other cytokines, as well as various oncogenes and transcription factors. However, these hormonal effects vary depending on the signals used to activate blood mononuclear cells; moreover, each of the effects of the hormone can be either attenuated, abolished, or even reversed from negative to positive in the presence of phorbol esters. Lymphocytes also express a previously unrecognized 80-kDa cytosolic protein that shares immunologic cross-reactivity with the VDR. This protein is induced on activation and is downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas the VDR is upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast to the signal- dependent effects of the hormone on cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and VDR are independent of the activation signals. This apparent mechanistic distinction raises the possibility that the signal-independent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and the VDR might be due to direct interactions of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex with specific response elements (negative and positive VDRFs, respectively) on these two genes; as opposed to the signal- dependent effects that might be due to influences of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex on other transcription factors that are generated in response to the different activation stimuli. Consistent with the second part of this contention, we have recently found that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates the 50-kDa DNA binding subunit of the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κB and the 105-kDa precursor of this subunit; as well as other members of the rel- related family of proteins, including v-rel and its normal cellular homolog c-rel, in activated normal human lymphocytes. Besides its influence on immune cell products, 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent agent for the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into osteoclasts, an effect which accounts for the potent role of the hormone in bone resorption. The osteoclastogenic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are probably mediated through direct effects on hematopoietic precursors as well as indirectly through actions of the hormone on bone marrow stromal/osteoblastic cells that provide the essential factors for osteoclast development. Although these observations have unraveled a role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in immunoregulation, the teleologic significance of the immunomodulating properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 remains poorly understood. Yet, early attempts to exploit the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has therapeutic potentials for hematolymphopoietic diseases, such as leukemia, autoimmune disorders, transplantation, and psoriasis, have been met with modest to complete success (in the case of psoriasis). The emergence of synthetic new analogs with lesser hypercalcemic properties than 1,25(OH)2D3, and evidence suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with cyclosporin is a more effective immunosuppressive regime than either of these agents alone, promises new and exciting advances in this area of investigation in the near future.",
author = "Manolagas, {S. C.} and Yu, {X. P.} and G. Girasole and Teresita Bellido",
year = "1994",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "129--143",
journal = "Seminars in Nephrology",
issn = "0270-9295",
publisher = "W.B. Saunders Ltd",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue

T2 - A 1994 update

AU - Manolagas, S. C.

AU - Yu, X. P.

AU - Girasole, G.

AU - Bellido, Teresita

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - Monocytes/macrophages and activated (but not resting) lymphocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes express the VDR. This protein is indistinguishable from the classical 50-kDa VDR and is encoded by an mRNA with identical nucleotide sequence to that of the human intestinal VDR. Acting via the VDR, 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the production of a plethora of monocyte, lymphocyte, and bone marrow stromal cell products, including several interleukins and other cytokines, as well as various oncogenes and transcription factors. However, these hormonal effects vary depending on the signals used to activate blood mononuclear cells; moreover, each of the effects of the hormone can be either attenuated, abolished, or even reversed from negative to positive in the presence of phorbol esters. Lymphocytes also express a previously unrecognized 80-kDa cytosolic protein that shares immunologic cross-reactivity with the VDR. This protein is induced on activation and is downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas the VDR is upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast to the signal- dependent effects of the hormone on cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and VDR are independent of the activation signals. This apparent mechanistic distinction raises the possibility that the signal-independent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and the VDR might be due to direct interactions of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex with specific response elements (negative and positive VDRFs, respectively) on these two genes; as opposed to the signal- dependent effects that might be due to influences of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex on other transcription factors that are generated in response to the different activation stimuli. Consistent with the second part of this contention, we have recently found that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates the 50-kDa DNA binding subunit of the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κB and the 105-kDa precursor of this subunit; as well as other members of the rel- related family of proteins, including v-rel and its normal cellular homolog c-rel, in activated normal human lymphocytes. Besides its influence on immune cell products, 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent agent for the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into osteoclasts, an effect which accounts for the potent role of the hormone in bone resorption. The osteoclastogenic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are probably mediated through direct effects on hematopoietic precursors as well as indirectly through actions of the hormone on bone marrow stromal/osteoblastic cells that provide the essential factors for osteoclast development. Although these observations have unraveled a role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in immunoregulation, the teleologic significance of the immunomodulating properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 remains poorly understood. Yet, early attempts to exploit the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has therapeutic potentials for hematolymphopoietic diseases, such as leukemia, autoimmune disorders, transplantation, and psoriasis, have been met with modest to complete success (in the case of psoriasis). The emergence of synthetic new analogs with lesser hypercalcemic properties than 1,25(OH)2D3, and evidence suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with cyclosporin is a more effective immunosuppressive regime than either of these agents alone, promises new and exciting advances in this area of investigation in the near future.

AB - Monocytes/macrophages and activated (but not resting) lymphocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes as well as certain subsets of thymocytes express the VDR. This protein is indistinguishable from the classical 50-kDa VDR and is encoded by an mRNA with identical nucleotide sequence to that of the human intestinal VDR. Acting via the VDR, 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the production of a plethora of monocyte, lymphocyte, and bone marrow stromal cell products, including several interleukins and other cytokines, as well as various oncogenes and transcription factors. However, these hormonal effects vary depending on the signals used to activate blood mononuclear cells; moreover, each of the effects of the hormone can be either attenuated, abolished, or even reversed from negative to positive in the presence of phorbol esters. Lymphocytes also express a previously unrecognized 80-kDa cytosolic protein that shares immunologic cross-reactivity with the VDR. This protein is induced on activation and is downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas the VDR is upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast to the signal- dependent effects of the hormone on cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and VDR are independent of the activation signals. This apparent mechanistic distinction raises the possibility that the signal-independent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the 80-kDa protein and the VDR might be due to direct interactions of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex with specific response elements (negative and positive VDRFs, respectively) on these two genes; as opposed to the signal- dependent effects that might be due to influences of the 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR complex on other transcription factors that are generated in response to the different activation stimuli. Consistent with the second part of this contention, we have recently found that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates the 50-kDa DNA binding subunit of the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κB and the 105-kDa precursor of this subunit; as well as other members of the rel- related family of proteins, including v-rel and its normal cellular homolog c-rel, in activated normal human lymphocytes. Besides its influence on immune cell products, 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent agent for the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into osteoclasts, an effect which accounts for the potent role of the hormone in bone resorption. The osteoclastogenic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are probably mediated through direct effects on hematopoietic precursors as well as indirectly through actions of the hormone on bone marrow stromal/osteoblastic cells that provide the essential factors for osteoclast development. Although these observations have unraveled a role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in immunoregulation, the teleologic significance of the immunomodulating properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 remains poorly understood. Yet, early attempts to exploit the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has therapeutic potentials for hematolymphopoietic diseases, such as leukemia, autoimmune disorders, transplantation, and psoriasis, have been met with modest to complete success (in the case of psoriasis). The emergence of synthetic new analogs with lesser hypercalcemic properties than 1,25(OH)2D3, and evidence suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with cyclosporin is a more effective immunosuppressive regime than either of these agents alone, promises new and exciting advances in this area of investigation in the near future.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028207072&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028207072&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8177980

AN - SCOPUS:0028207072

VL - 14

SP - 129

EP - 143

JO - Seminars in Nephrology

JF - Seminars in Nephrology

SN - 0270-9295

IS - 2

ER -