Vitamin D status and resistance exercise training independently affect glucose tolerance in older adults

Vanessa M. Kobza, James C. Fleet, Jing Zhou, Travis B. Conley, Munro Peacock, Heidi B. IglayReger, Glen DePalma, Wayne W. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


We assessed the influence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations on oral glucose tolerance, body composition, and muscle strength in older, nondiabetic adults who performed resistance exercise training (RT) while consuming diets with either 0.9 or 1.2 g protein kg-1 d-1. We hypothesized that individuals with insufficient 25(OH)D and/or high PTH would have less improvement in glucose tolerance after 12 weeks of RT compared with individuals with sufficient 25(OH)D and lower PTH. Sixteen men and 19 women (aged 61 ± 8 years; range, 50-80 years; body mass index, 26.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2) performed RT 3 times/wk for 12 weeks, with oral glucose tolerance tests done at baseline and postintervention. Protein intake did not influence the responses described below. Plasma glucose area under the curve (P = .02) and 2-hour plasma glucose concentration (P = .03) were higher for vitamin D-insufficient subjects (25[OH]D <50 nmol/L, n = 7) vs vitamin D-sufficient subjects (25[OH]D ≥50 nmol/L, n = 28). These differences remained significant after adjustment for age and body mass index. Resistance exercise training reduced fat mass (mean ± SD, -6% ± 7%; P < .001) and increased lean body mass (2% ± 3%, P < .001) and whole-body muscle strength (32% ± 17%, P < .001) in these weight-stable subjects but did not affect 25(OH)D or PTH concentrations. Oral glucose tolerance improved after RT (-10% ± 16% in glucose area under the curve and -21% ± 40% in 2-hour glucose, P = .001), but baseline 25(OH)D and PTH did not influence these RT-induced changes. These findings indicate that vitamin D status and RT independently affect glucose tolerance, and a training-induced improvement in glucose tolerance does not offset the negative effect of insufficient vitamin D status in older, nondiabetic adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-357
Number of pages9
JournalNutrition Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2013



  • Body composition
  • Human
  • Muscle strength
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Kobza, V. M., Fleet, J. C., Zhou, J., Conley, T. B., Peacock, M., IglayReger, H. B., DePalma, G., & Campbell, W. W. (2013). Vitamin D status and resistance exercise training independently affect glucose tolerance in older adults. Nutrition Research, 33(5), 349-357.