Vitamin D supplementation does not impact insulin resistance in black and white children

Ashley J. Ferira, Emma M. Laing, Dorothy B. Hausman, Daniel B. Hall, George P. McCabe, Berdine R. Martin, Kathleen M. Hill Gallant, Stuart J. Warden, Connie M. Weaver, Munro Peacock, Richard D. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Context: Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9-13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Design: Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Results: Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = -0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P < .003) over the 12 weeks, despite vitamin D dose-dependent increases in serum 25(OH)D. Conclusions: Despite significant baseline inverse relationships between serum 25(OH)D and measures of insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1710-1718
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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