Vocal tract articulation revisited

the case of the monk parakeet

Verena R. Ohms, Gabriël J L Beckers, Carel Ten Cate, Roderick Suthers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-92
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume215
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Parakeets
parakeets
songbird
Dental Articulators
Parrots
tongue
Tongue
parrots
Beak
beak
bird
vocalization
Songbirds
songbirds
cavity
learning
Birds
Monachus
larynx
birds

Keywords

  • Beak gape
  • Birdsong
  • Monk parakeets
  • Tongue movements
  • Trachea
  • Vocal production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Insect Science
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Vocal tract articulation revisited : the case of the monk parakeet. / Ohms, Verena R.; Beckers, Gabriël J L; Ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 215, No. 1, 01.2012, p. 85-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ohms, Verena R. ; Beckers, Gabriël J L ; Ten Cate, Carel ; Suthers, Roderick. / Vocal tract articulation revisited : the case of the monk parakeet. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 ; Vol. 215, No. 1. pp. 85-92.
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