VP-16 plus ifosfamide plus cisplatin as salvage therapy in refractory germ cell cancer

P. J. Loehrer, L. H. Einhorn, S. D. Williams

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133 Scopus citations


Forty-eight evaluable male patients with germ cell tumors (GCT) failing to be cured with first-line therapy were treated with VP-16 (75 mg/m2), ifosfamide (1.2 g/m2), and cisplatin (20 mg/m2) (VIP), all given daily for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks. All patients either achieved an unresectable partial remission as their best response to induction chemotherapy (Group A), relapsed from complete remission (CR) ≤ 2 months after induction therapy (Group B), or had received cisplatin plus VP-16 as previous salvage therapy (Group C). Nine (19%) had extragonadal GCT, and 37 (77%) had advanced disease. Twenty-three (48%) of the patients had ≥ 2 prior treatment regimens. Sixteen of 48 (33%) achieved CR with VIP treatment alone or following surgical excision of residual disease. Six of 22 (27%), three of seven (43%), and seven of 19 (37%) patients from groups A, B, and C, respectively, attained a CR. The median survival time of all patients was 7 months (range 0 to 28+) with seven patients remaining continuously free of disease (four patients > 1 year). Myelosuppression was significant with a median WBC nadir of 900/mm2 and platelet nadir of 24,000/mm2. Fourteen (26%) had granulocytopenic fever, and renal insufficiency developed in 15%. VIP combination chemotherapy demonstrates activity in this highly unfavorable population of patients with germ cell tumors. The actual contribution of ifosfamide in this regimen is unclear, but these results compare favorably to our experience with similar patients treated with cisplatin plus VP-16 alone. Further studies with VIP as initial salvage therapy for patients with GCT are planned.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)528-536
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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