Young-onset dementia

Dulanji K. Kuruppu, Brandy Matthews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Young-onset dementia is a neurologic syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of a detailed medical history, a collateral history, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as young-onset dementia and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in young-onset dementia. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of young-onset dementia with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-385
Number of pages21
JournalSeminars in Neurology
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

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Dementia
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Lewy Body Disease
Frontotemporal Dementia
Mitochondrial Diseases
Vascular Dementia
Prion Diseases
Amnesia
Poisons
Huntington Disease
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Diagnostic Errors
Neuroimaging
Cognition
Nervous System
Communicable Diseases
Alzheimer Disease
Differential Diagnosis
History

Keywords

  • dementia/reversible
  • early-onset dementia
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • young-onset dementia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

Cite this

Young-onset dementia. / Kuruppu, Dulanji K.; Matthews, Brandy.

In: Seminars in Neurology, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2013, p. 365-385.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kuruppu, Dulanji K. ; Matthews, Brandy. / Young-onset dementia. In: Seminars in Neurology. 2013 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. pp. 365-385.
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